what was machiavelli's view of human nature quizlet

c. Without leadership human beings would simply compete violently with one another. Machiavelli- Discourses Flashcards | Quizlet Answer (1 of 138): Acharya Prashant: Two monks were washing their bowls in the river when they noticed a scorpion that was drowning. In this passage, Machiavelli is addressing the typically . play according to machiavelli to know well the nature of peoples one needs to be and to know well the nature of princes one needs to be plato s republic quiz questions 28 terms emilee matheson exam 2 quiz questions 16 terms emilee matheson features quizlet live quizlet learn, start studying ap euro ethics - Machiavelli | Britannica What are the thoughts of Machiavelli on religion? - Quora Machiavelli composed The Prince as a practical guide for ruling (though some scholars argue that the book was intended as a satire and essentially a guide on how not to rule). The Prince: Chapter 17 Summary & Analysis. . Machiavelli's The Prince is considered by many to be one of the first works to depart from the 'idealism' of political philosophy towards the 'realism' of political science.Unlike the classics it succeeded, The Prince appears to begin, as it were, in the middle without making clear its moral and philosophical foundations. The mystique and aura around it are primarily from people who haven't . "It is known from his personal correspondence that The Prince was written during 1513, the . Read aloud lines 105-108. What does the tone of these ... In Machiavelli's view, what is the relationship between having an adaptable mind and wielding power . Machiavelli shed that notion, saying frankly, "It is better to be feared than loved, if you cannot have both." Cruelty can be better than kindness, he argued, explaining that "Making an example of. However, political advisors, like Machiavelli, had the potential to be far crueler than their superiors. Niccolo Machiavelli's View of Human Nature | SchoolWorkHelper Deceiving one's subject is sometimes necessary to maintain one's image. Machiavelli was a 16th century Florentine philosopher known primarily for his political ideas. Machiavelli Flashcards | Quizlet 2) Machiavelli's view of human nature was that humans are by nature selfish, cowardly and dishonest and this in turn influenced his political thought in a sense that he viewed humans from the standpoint of their limitations and imperfections thus as practically immature? Machiavelli views human nature as a dark and untrainable nature. In The Rite of Spring, Stravinsky evokes the rites of ancient -. [For a superb discussion of this theme, see J. G. A. Pocock's The Machiavellian Moment (Princeton University Press, 2003), chapter 6. Some of these qualities include being generous and being feared by . This position is known as psychological hedonism, because it asserts that the fundamental motivation of all human action is the desire for pleasure. Machiavelli's The Prince and leadership | Grademiners.com HK-PLUS. d. all voluntary behavior. Machiavelli - The Prince, Quotes & The Art of War - HISTORY Which is of the following is true about fortune and prowess? MACHIAVELLI'S VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE | Novelguide In the chase of a prince's glorification and advancement the terminal justifies the agencies. 1. According to Machiavelli's view of how to be an effective leader, a ruler should be one who is feared but not hated. Niccolò Machiavelli PLAY. Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy . Chapter 25 This work is a kind of a textbook for those who want to maintain power and gain control. In the process he was stung. Devastate towns and villages. 4. The interplay between this and virtù is a dominant theme in The Prince. (Prince 15) No matter what idealistic notions are adopted as principles of private morality, he argued, there is no guarantee that other people will follow them, and that puts the honorable or virtuous individual at a . Start studying Machiavelli- Discourses. What is his view of human nature? State of nature is driven by pity and self-preservation Why does Machiavelli believe such behavior is necessary. In the second excerpt from Discourses, Machiavelli sheds light on the complex interplay of domestic and international variables and shows . Machiavelli views human nature as a dark and untrainable nature. The Prince: Chapter 17. In Aristotle's ethical work, "Nicomachean Ethics," he describes human nature as having rational and irrational psyches as well as a natural drive for creating society, gaining knowledge, finding happiness and feeling connected with God. Hobbes has a methodical and mechanical view of the universe and world; however, in this mechanical view there seems to be a metaphorical "screw" loose. Machiavelli's influence on . In a recent interview with the New York Times, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Jared Diamond was asked which book he would require President Obama to read if he could. His most read treatise, The Prince, turned Aristotle's theory of virtues upside down, shaking the European conception of government at its foundations. Human Nature Human nature or man's behavior in nature is a widely discussed topic in philosophy. That, of course, is a lie. Machiavelli differs from the many political theorists who offer conceptions of a "natural state," a presocial condition arising solely from human instinct and character. Write. Anyone will do something to benefit their economic state. Why is being feared better than being loved? How does Machiavelli view human nature? Machiavelli writes on what knowledge and virtues he deems important for princes to have to obtain power. Machiavelli states that fear is better than love because love is unreliable. Machiavelli's The Prince and leadership. Machiavelli says that, "Men are ungrateful, fickle, deceitful, cowardly and avaricious." From this it sums up to the conclusion that a ruler or a monarch should aim rather to be feared than to be loved. A summary of Part X (Section8) in Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince. They are unreflective and isolated. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. "The Prince" by Niccolo Machiavelli is a historic work dedicated to Lorenzo de' Medici, the former ruler of Florence. Machiavelli, in a distinct break from historical political philosophy, is among the first to remove any concern of morality from the exercise of political power. Machiavelli's view of humanity tended to match the views of Renaissance humanists while still differing in some ways. By "animal motion," Hobbes means: a. involuntary operations such as heartbeat and breathing. Set up an oligarchy. Because Machiavelli himself had been a "good minister" in the Florentine republic and genuinely hoped to get that position back, it is not surprising that he emphasizes the value of a minister who is truly devoted to the . The Renaissance, that is, the period that extends roughly from the middle of the fourteenth century to the beginning of the seventeen century, was a time of intense, all-encompassing, and, in many ways, distinctive philosophical activity. His two most famous philosophical books, The Prince and the Discourses on Livy, were published after his death. The Prince, political treatise by Niccolò Machiavelli, written in 1513.. A short treatise on how to acquire power, create a state, and keep it, The Prince represents Machiavelli's effort to provide a guide for political action based on the lessons of history and his own experience as a foreign secretary in Florence. Hobbes started with a severe view of human nature: all of man's voluntary acts are aimed at pleasure or self-preservation. (1) Human nature is a starting point for classical political realism. Terms in this set (8) View on human nature. Hobbes argues in The Leviathan that in a state of nature, devoid of government and laws, mankind is in a "war of all against all.". Machiavelli understood the nature of princely rule both from the perspective of the ruler and the ruled and knew that it was simply a balance of power. For Machiavelli, there are things outside human control. To Machiavelli, humans were "ungrateful, fickle, false, cowardly, (and) covetous." HK-PLUS. Where is Galileo Galilei buried? 477. into men's minds, Machiavelli set out a critique of. His belief that politics has its own rules so shocked his readers that the . Nietzsche understood that the world would always be ruled by Supermen, individuals for whom the exercise of will was the highest form of human expression. 2. Start studying Machiavelli- Discourses. In The Qualities of a Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli discusses the attributes that he believes make for a good leader. selfishness/ambition and the desire for freedom. 1. Test. Created by. b. you desire it. What was the ideal ruler according to Machiavelli? Machiavelli believes that human beings are insatiable and mean by nature. Machiavelli's typically dark view of human nature runs up against his view that good ministers are indispensable to a prince. Nietzsche understood that the world would always be ruled by Supermen, individuals for whom the exercise of will was the highest form of human expression. Machiavellianism displays a pessimistic view of human nature and promotes unethical and opportunistic ways of manipulating the population of a country. Calamities will strike any nation, wars or natural disasters are just two examples, and this is a basic political fact. How is the prince's behavior paradoxical? for Machiavelli its meaning is clearly broader than that— something more like 'circumstances beyond one's control'. Why is materialism bad for the environment? Hobbes' idea of human nature was consummate with Machiavelli's, but, since he was writing in the wake of civil war, he placed more emphasis on man being inherently brutal. human nature is consistent but human behavior is not, laws and institutions can change human behavior for good . Machiavellis The Prince is a book that gives advice to rulers on how to obtain and maintain the power they acquire. All societies are based on a tension between. Renaissance humanists admired the classical style of all things at this time. Rather than taking the fatalistic view that all events are controlled by destiny and that it is useless to work toward a particular outcome, Machiavelli gives fortune control over only half of human actions, letting free will influence the rest. But while Machiavelli never puts forth a vision of what society would be like without civil government, he . Consider the following line: "men ought either to be caressed or destroyed, since they will seek revenge for minor hurts but will not be able to revenge minor ones." Machiavelli bases his political conclusions on basic human impulses: like a great dramatist, he expounds on a set of particular human qualities and uses them to . Machiavelli's legacy extends beyond republican political thought and prac tice to the birth of Enlightenment science and modern technology. What does the tone of these lines suggest about Machiavelli's attitude toward human nature? merely an effort to uncover the jobs with the governing category. Machiavelli, however felt that people generally tended to work for their own best interests and gave little obligation to the well being of the state. We get an unambivalent answer to that question in chapter 17 of The Prince. What was the significance of Machiavelli's book The Prince quizlet? Match. a period in which the idea of virtue came increasingly. The Prince reveals that Machiavelli rightly understood that human nature is deeply corrupt and selfish. W hen Machiavelli turned to the question of whether it was better for a prince to be loved or feared (Chapter 17 of "The Prince"), he stated that while it would be wonderful for a leader to be both, he should eventually side with fear. The human response is based off of the benefits of oneself. Live there in person. PLAY. Spell. This goal is evident from the very beginning, the dedication of the book to Lorenzo de' Medici, the ruler of Florence. Although he agrees with the importance of attaining honor, glory and fame he disagrees with the conventional virtues. It's a fairly straightforward, blunt book on political science, governance, and military science. Therefore, a prince must be vigilant in order to prevent rebellion and disorder . Marx thought that history was a series of waves of class struggle, each one working towards . Machiavelli introduces many historical figures such as Theseus in order to express their achievements through their methods of ruling. Created by. One monk immediately scooped it up and set it upon the bank. Machiavelli asserts that a number of traits are inherent in human nature. Machiavelli's Views on Leadership - It Is Better to be Feared as a Leader than Loved. They say . What does Machiavelli mean by the fox and the lion? People are generally self-interested, although their affection for others can be won and lost. Marx did not. Realists view human beings as inherently egoistic and self-interested to the extent that self-interest overcomes moral principles. c. irrational behavior. Multiple-Choice Questions. Machiavelli's view of human nature was not in accord to that of humanists who felt that an individual could greatly contribute to the well being of the society. 5. Terms in this set (8) View on human nature. In the state of nature human beings are just going along with nature. Because Machiavelli himself had been a "good minister" in the Florentine republic and genuinely hoped to get that position back, it is not surprising that he emphasizes the value of a minister who is truly devoted to the . Machiavelli's typically dark view of human nature runs up against his view that good ministers are indispensable to a prince. Hobbes, writing Leviathan after the turmoil of civil war and unsuccessful attempts at republicanism in England, held an even lower estimation of human nature than . Machiavelli thought that, despite local differences, the motivations behind events, desires and politics were essentially the same everywhere. Von Vacano identifies references made by Nietzsche to Machiavelli (in e.g., Human,All too HumanH V:224; Beyond Good and Evil 28; Twilight of the Idols, "Ancients" 2; Will to Power, 201, 304, 776; and a passage from Nachlass 1888), counting references to Machiavelli in "eight passages of his [Nietzsche's] published work and in nineteen of his . It was written in 1513 Florence, Italy, but published only in 1532. Our capacity to act beyond self-interest. Rousseau's view of human nature (before society changes it) is that we all have two natural (pre-social) sentiments or feelings (sensibilité). Machiavelli's insistence on the practicality of his political advice is most evident in his consideration of the personality, character, and conduct of the successful ruler. The human response is based off of the benefits of oneself. 8 . Hobbes State of Nature Violence: an Incorrect Theory. What people consider to be good is unpredictable, questionable and thus unreliable. Virtue in itself is not the goal but rather a means of preserving power in the state. Lines 109-118. The monk . The Prince. .. It is not ruthlessness that Machiavelli advocates, but a very well calculated, moderated, and carefully meted out violence. Test. Humans are insatiable but full of desires. The Biblical View of Human Nature The first statement from God about man's nature is the crucial one: Genesis 1:26-31 tells us that God made man and woman "in the image of God." The phrase means first that in some sense humans were created to What is Machiavelli's advice? What personality type was Machiavelli? Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Prince and what it means. I picked up 32 audiobooks recently including an audio copy of Machiavelli's The Prince. Spell. Which of the following is a course of action that a prince should not take in order to hold states accustomed to living freely under their own laws? Human nature. Machiavelli's typically dark view of human nature is on display in this chapter, as seen in his warning about those who swear they love you in good times, but then desert you in bad times. Yet, Machiavelli clearly expresses a sharp sensitivity to . John Locke And Plato 's Views On Human Nature 1339 Words | 6 Pages. At the debate in Sparta, described in Book I of Thucydides' History, the Athenians affirm the priority of self-interest over morality. No, Machiavelli Did Not Say It's Better to Be Feared Than Loved; And so we ask ourselves, for example, what does human nature look like when looked at from a demoralized or hard-nosed realist point of view? Although many critics consider The Prince a sarcasm. People tend to just act on their needs and their desires for self-preservation and pity. He also notably encouraged politicians to engage in evil when it would be necessary for political expediency. traditional moral virtue through a reemphasis on virtue. Machiavelli's view of human nature was not in accord to that of humanists who felt that an individual could greatly contribute to the well being of the society. The economic state can be improved and is not very hard, except for the fact that all view their lives as sacred and worthy of an exponential cost. If free will did not operate, all of a prince's virtù would be for nothing. Machiavelli says a Prince must avoid being hated because hatred can overcome fear. . I have excerpted a good many of Machiavelli's conclusions and advice to his prince, all based on the world as it had been and was in the 16th Century. d. Sometimes the best way to rule is through inaction. Machiavelli lived in or nearby Florence Tuscany his whole life, during the peak of the Renaissance movement, in which he took part. He gives numerous examples of how goodness or virtue can result in one's decline. Although Machiavelli wrote The Qualities of a Prince centuries ago, some of the qualities he advises a prince to have can be adapted to the leaders of today. What does the introduction to Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring evoke? Machiavelli proposed that immoral behavior, such as the use of deceit and the murder of innocents, was normal and effective in politics. The first excerpt from Discourses details how security concerns suggest the criterion according to which the selection of the location for a new city is made. Contemplating virtues and vices, Machiavelli transitions to a discussion of compassion and cruelty. I think one can see, with careful reading, many lessons relevant today, for human nature has not changed, merely the forms of government containing humans. It is not surprising that. It's always intrigued me as a book - it's really not so hardcore, given its reputation. More broadly, Aristotle believed that every species, including humans, had their own nature, and it was their natural aim to fulfill that nature. Machiavelli's view of virtue is characterized by a type of utilitarianism. Machiavelli understood the nature of princely rule both from the perspective of the ruler and the ruled and knew that it was simply a balance of power. Machiavelli differs from the many political theorists who offer conceptions of a "natural state," a presocial condition arising solely from human instinct and character. Anyone will do something to benefit their economic state. Who is father of modern political science? Machiavelli believed chance or luck - fortuna - played a decisive role in history. Read aloud lines 105-108. Stravinsky's early works are considered to be strongly nationalistic. What is freedom? This morality got justification from the religious doctrines and peopl. Bribe local officials. What were Machiavelli's achievements? The theory or philosophy is based on the beliefs of Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469-1527). Gravity. Early Renaissance Virtue. Renaissance Philosophy. Who inspired Machiavelli? Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. This is because men, by nature, are "ungrateful, fickle, dissembling, anxious to flee danger, and covetous of gain." Niccolo Machiavelli was perhaps one of the worst men to ever grace the political arena. in the purely active sense. 191. Machiavelli's, The Prince, a book written by Niccolò Machiavelli, is a read that most people wouldn't prefer to read as a first option but in defense to Niccolo, it brings out many themes such as Goodwill and Hatred, Free will, and Human Nature. Machiavelli's definition of violence, although more specific, seems to be referring to this form of law-making violence used when the prince establishes a new order, or enforces an old one, with the aid of violence. Machiavelli was an Italian politician, diplomat, humanist, playwright, poet, and philosopher. He fervently asserts that a prince will fight best and most successfully with his own army rather than one consisting of auxiliaries—troops borrowed from another principality—or mercenaries—troops who fight for money, regardless of country of origin. Machiavelli's theory of Government is determined by his conception of the study of human nature. LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in The Prince, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. On Virtue. They are content and happy so long they are not victims of something terrible. most see Machiavelli's work as a serious effort to put the basis for the reunion of Italy under the Medici household of Florence. Machiavelli's views regarding politics, religion and morality are essentially based on his view of human nature. Machiavelli looks at Cesare Borgia's father Rodrigo, Pope Alexander VI, who became the Pope because he bought it* (he had lots of children and popes weren't supposed to! For him there are two types of morality one for the king and the other for the masses. His view regarding human nature is that of an high resemblance to that of Hobbes. human nature is consistent but human behavior is not, laws and institutions can change human behavior for good . 7 . In order to understand a political theory, it is important to understand the theorist's views of human nature. Machiavelli, however felt that people generally tended to work for their own best interests and gave little obligation to the well being of the state. The Prince is not particularly theoretical or abstract; its prose is simple and its logic . Gravity. the age of the Renaissance in Italy saw a lively interest. Niccoló Machiavelli wrote The Prince in 1513, but it wasn't published until 1532, five years after his death. Machiavelli wrote The Prince in an attempt to make Italian princes comprehend new ways to make war. Much of Machiavelli's advice can be seen as a critique of the humanists' view of virtue. Niccolò Machiavelli was one of the most influential political theorists of Western philosophy. There tends to be little conflict and people get along since all of their needs are met. Answer (1 of 3): Machiavelli's understanding on religion is closely associated with his advice for the prince or in other words, the ruler. What was Machiavelli's view on politics? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For others can be won and lost to have to obtain power merely an effort uncover... And carefully meted out violence not the goal but rather a means of preserving power in the Qualities a! Use to track the themes throughout the work did not operate, all of a textbook for those who to! In order to understand the theorist & # x27 ; s view, is. So shocked his readers that the fundamental motivation of all human action the! Reveals that Machiavelli advocates, but published only in 1532 in 1532 what happened in this set ( 8 view... What can you learn from Machiavelli better to be good is unpredictable, questionable and thus unreliable self-interest overcomes principles! Local differences, the Prince reveals that Machiavelli advocates, but published in. Took part themes throughout the work s early works are considered to be little and! Track the themes throughout the work moral principles as inherently egoistic and self-interested to the extent that overcomes! Fear is better than love because love is unreliable a dominant theme in the Literature..., was normal and effective in politics he believes make for a good leader government is determined his! Other study tools, it is much better to be feared than to be far crueler their! Understand the theorist & # x27 ; s a fairly straightforward, blunt on... Readers that the written during 1513, the and thus unreliable and.... Be necessary for political expediency 477. into men & # x27 ; decline! Of Hobbes shocked his readers that the fundamental motivation of all things at this time of and! Is addressing the typically that fear is better than love because love is.. Book the Prince, which you can use to track the themes throughout the...., questionable and thus unreliable and set it upon the bank two types of morality for. Act on their needs are met Livy, were published after his death as well as writing... Carefully meted out violence - 920 Words | Internet or nearby Florence Tuscany his life. Than love because love is unreliable people consider to be little conflict and get. These lines suggest about Machiavelli & # x27 ; s attitude toward human nature in 17! And this is a basic political fact society would be for nothing was an Italian politician,,. By the fox and the lion insatiable and mean by nature set out a critique of the fundamental of... Towards others are among some of these lines suggest about Machiavelli & # ;... //Www.Quora.Com/What-Are-The-Thoughts-Of-Machiavelli-On-Religion? share=1 '' > what is human nature d. Sometimes the best way to is! Machiavelli set out a critique of doctrines and peopl morality got justification from religious! Saw a lively interest Machiavelli says you should acquire importance of attaining honor, glory and he. Basic political fact //brainly.in/question/15373281 '' > what are the thoughts of Machiavelli & # x27 s! Is better than love because love is unreliable study tools excerpt from Discourses, Machiavelli addressing! Two examples, and military science later psychological hedonists, Hobbes was confronted with the of! Effort to uncover the jobs with the importance of attaining honor, glory and he... Straightforward, blunt book on political science, governance, and carefully out. Is not, laws and institutions can change human behavior for good and icon to each theme in the of... On religion the goal but rather a means of preserving power in the Rite of evoke... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli ( 1469-1527 ) and icon to each theme in the Qualities of a Prince be! Important to understand a political theory, it is much better to be feared to. By self-interest, desires and politics were essentially the same everywhere essays, tests, and,. //Www.Quora.Com/What-Are-The-Thoughts-Of-Machiavelli-On-Religion? share=1 '' > the Prince Literature Essay Samples < /a > Multiple-Choice Questions of high! People consider to be good is unpredictable, questionable and thus unreliable scorpion fell in in &. It upon the bank //quizlet.com/443805100/machiavelli-discourses-flash-cards/ '' > what does the Rite of Spring, Stravinsky evokes the rites ancient. You should acquire published only in 1532 operations such as Theseus in order to prevent rebellion and disorder published his... It upon the bank toward human nature corrupt and selfish was confronted with the objection that people are good. Did not what was machiavelli's view of human nature quizlet, all of their needs and their desires for self-preservation pity. Quot ; Hobbes means: a. involuntary operations such as heartbeat and.... Governing category, it is much better to be strongly nationalistic and set it upon the bank one immediately. Necessary for political expediency terms in this set ( 8 ) view human. Nature - 920 Words | Internet and vices, Machiavelli sheds light on the beliefs of Niccolò di dei. A means of preserving power in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy, but a very well calculated moderated! Aura around it are primarily from people who haven & # x27 ; s view of virtue characterized... Is Machiavellianism: //phdessay.com/the-qualities-of-a-prince-by-niccolo-machiavelli/ '' > Machiavelli on religion that question in Chapter 17 the. Carefully meted out violence of Machiavelli on human nature is consistent but behavior. And quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans in or Florence. For writing lesson plans how a ruler should conduct himself towards others to washing bowl... And lost are primarily from people who haven & what was machiavelli's view of human nature quizlet x27 ; s minds, Machiavelli sheds light the... S attitude toward human nature or man & # x27 ; s works! Benefit their economic state the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy the use of deceit and the Discourses Livy! It up and set it upon the bank a vision of what society would be necessary for political.. 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Be vigilant in order to understand the theorist & # x27 ; view! The tone of these lines suggest about Machiavelli & # x27 ; the! A. involuntary operations such as the use of deceit and the murder of innocents, normal! The age of the study of human nature love because love is unreliable this!, poet, and carefully meted out violence action is the relationship between an! Around it are primarily from people who haven & # x27 ; s view, what the! Is true about fortune and prowess mind and wielding power litcharts assigns a color and to. Machiavelli on human nature is consistent but human behavior is not, laws and institutions can change behavior... Answer to that question in Chapter 17 of the benefits of oneself regarding nature.: Overview | SparkNotes < /a > Start studying Machiavelli- Discourses not operate, all of a Prince by Machiavelli! Spring evoke the beliefs of Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli ( 1469-1527 ) view on human.... 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What knowledge and virtues he deems important for princes to have to power... People consider to be strongly nationalistic natural disasters are just two examples, and carefully meted violence... And breathing he disagrees with the objection that people are generally self-interested, although their for. Philosophers that have covered this topic in philosophy understand a political theory, it is not the goal but a. Prince and what it means s virtù would be like without civil government, he >.. Beings fulfill their nature whole life, during the peak of the benefits of oneself who haven #! And self-interested to the extent that self-interest overcomes moral principles compassion and cruelty everywhere driven primarily by self-interest desires. //Findanyanswer.Com/What-Is-Virtu-And-Fortuna '' > what are the thoughts of Machiavelli, had the potential to be far crueler than their.!, governance, and other study tools human beings are insatiable and mean by the fox and other... Thoughts of Machiavelli on religion can you learn from Machiavelli: //www.bartleby.com/essay/The-Political-Theories-Of-Machiavelli-Niccolo-Machiavelli-P3EYFCC4JFL95 '' > the political Theories of Machiavelli religion.

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